* According to Stern, intelligence is the capacity to adjust to new circumstances by using the tools to think according to its purpose.
* According to Thorndike, intelligence has the understanding as the ability of individuals who can in dmonstrasikan or shown to make a good response.
* Freeman, intelligence as:
1. Ability to integrate experience
2. Ability to learn
3. Ability to perform tasks, psychologically considered as an intellectual
4. Ability to carry on abstract thinking
* Morgan, Principal approach to the definition in terms of intelligence.
1. Approach factor / factor theory
2. Approach process (process oriented theories)
the intelligence structure
* Spearman's dual factor theory
- Generalability / generalfactor / factor G.
This theory is different in every individual and there is in performance.
- Special abilities / special factor / factor S.
This theory is specific (in certain areas)
Known as three-dimensional theory
- cube (120 factors) -> intelligence
every factor comprising:
1. operating dimensions: cognition, memory, divergent thinking -> creative thinking, convergent thinking -> problem solving, and evaluation.
2. Product dimensions: units, classes, systems, relationships, transformation, and implications.
3. dimensions of content: figure, symbolic, semantics and behavior.
There are 2 components of intellectual activity:
1. Fluid Intellegence
the ability of potential independent the intelligence
2. Intellegence Crytallized cultural aspects (formal education) combined with knowledge and skills
examples of intelligence test:
1 SPEED TEST
2 POWER TEST
3 CFIT (Culture Fair Intelligence test)
4 SPM (standard progressive matrices)
5 TIU (general intelligence test)