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Monday, January 31, 2011



Memory refers to the process of storing or maintaining information over time.
Almost every human activity always involves aspects of memory. Therefore, the memory becomes important in human cognitive processes.
Kind  of memory:
  • Short term memory
  • Long term memory
  • Declarative memory
  • Prosedural memory
    Short term memory model and long term memory:
    This model was introduced by Atkinson & Shiffrin, known as the Information Processing model
    information received, processed through the recording of the senses to the STM, and then forwarded to the memory of a more permanent LTM.
    Transfer of information from the five senses to the STM, is controlled by the attention, after controlling information will perform the functions of memory, here who plays Rehearsal or repetition.

    The function of Rehearsal:
    1. Keeping or maintaining appropriate information from short term memory
    2. Moving information from short term memory into long memory  
    Episodic memory model and semantic
    This model was purposed by Endel Tulving, who distinguishes between episodic memory and semantic memory.
    Episodic memory stores information about the events and relationship of each incident. This memory associated with things that are temporary and event changes.
    Examples of episodic memory: example sentence is a personal experience, and every experience to be remembered in relation to other experiences.
    Semantic memory is organized knowledge about everything in life.
    Compotion of semantic memory contains knowledge that is more constans or almost no change at any time. Example of semantic memory: I know that salt taste salty. I know the meaning of the constraints are constraints.
    Short term memory (STM)
     Regarded as a center of human consciousness. Allegedly in STM have thoughts, information, experience in the minds of people all the time.
    The function of Short term memory:
    •  Temporary storage: select the data to be maintained while in storage.
    • Comprehensive setting: continue to experience long term memory to more permanent storage and release of data from various memory systems.
    Power Save short term memory
    From various studies show that the capacity to remember someone as much as 7 chunk/group.
    According to George Miller, the human ability to remember the number to 7, The magical number seven plus minus 2, so the ability to remember between 5 and 9.
    The most easy to remember 2 to 5 chunks.

    Serial position effect:
    • A item/objects that are in a position or order of the beginning and the end will likely be remembered better than located in the middle.
    • Effect of information located at the beginning called Primary effects.
    • Effect of information located at the end called recency effects.
    • This happens because the information at the beginning and end, because it will first enter the short term memory, hence enabling the repitition in the mind and proceed to the long term memory.

    Long term memory
    It is a process of information storage that is more permanent.
    Some factors influencing long-term memory is a skill, giving a special code, emotional or affective
    Expertise in a field provide a very large effect on one's memory
    People will easily remember when he was in the same situation when the previous coding

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