Several figures in the world have differents opinions about social interaction. Some of these figures are Kimbal Young, Gillin, Tamotsu Shibutani, and Soekanto.
Kimbal Young (1948) distinguishes social interaction as follows:
- opposition, including competition and conflict.
- Cooperation, resulting in accommodation
- Diferensi, causing employment differences between people - individuals or groups in society
- Associative process, which includes accommodation, assimilation, and acculturation
- Dissociative process, which includes competition, contention, or strife in the form kontravensi and conflict.
- Strategic interactions
- Development of Human Behavior
PROCESSES OF ASSOCIATIVE
Associative process is a process which is a merger between two objects or sensory responses. Merging process can be decomposed into two forms namely:
1. Cooperation (cooperation),
Definition of cooperation is the ability to work together with others or in groups in order to accomplish a task or activity that is determined so as to achieve efficiency as much as possible.
Cooperation can arise because of the orientation of the individual against his own group or another group of people. The process of formation of social cooperation would inadvertently lead to social conflict and negative bersifatpositif.
The emergence of negative conflict in society can create social solidarity within the group becomes damaged due to the split. Therefore, negative conflict should be resolved soon though temporary.
In addition there is a conflict that is negative, there are also conflicts that are positive. Conflicts that are positive are very contrary to the conflict that is negative. Conflicts that are positive can create social solidarity to be higher when experiencing conflict with outside groups.
In order for human life can feel lighter in the issues or the work it would require a partnership. Examples of positive cooperation among others harmony, bargaining, co-optation, coalition, joint - venture.
2. Accommodation (acomodation),
Accommodation has several terms, namely:
-Place of residence or the provision of supplies and facilities needed by a person or group to meet the needs of
- Conformity with nature
- settlement of disputes
Accommodations can be used for the two requirements, first as a state of accommodation, and the second accommodation as a process.
Accommodation as a process is an attempt - the human effort to defuse conflict in achieving stability. Meanwhile accommodation as a state of balance is a reality of social life.
The benefits of the accommodation can be used for several things:
- Relieves conflict individuals or groups due to differences of opinion or misunderstanding
- Prevent explosion of conflict or emotional expression for a while
- Determine the choice of cooperation among social groups as a result of factors - socioeconomic factors or factors of psychological and cultural isolation of life by natural conditions.
- Striving for a merger between the groups - groups that are separated or separated.
Accommodation as a social process has several forms, among others, coercion (coercion), compromise (compromise), arbitrsi (arbitration), mediation (mediation), conciliation (Conciliation), tolerance (tolerance), does not react with each other (stalemate), and completion of court (adjudication)
In addition to having benefits, accommodation also has the results. Results of the accommodation is a togetherness, suppression of opposition, the coordination of a variety of different personalities, institutions begun and changes, changes in population, and opening the way to assimilation.
3. Assimilation (assimilation),
Assimilation is a a process of social adjustment or alignment preformance advanced stage characterized by the efforts undertaken to reduce the differences found in individual or group. Some forms of interaction soial that gives direction to the process of assimilation are as follows:
- Social interaction that is the approach to other parties and applies equally to the other party also
- Social interactions that do not have barriers or restrictions
- Assimilation process is accelerated when social interaction is direct and primary
- High frequency of social interactions and a balance between assimilation patterns are
Fast or slow realization of assimilation at the individual or group can be influenced by several factors driving and inhibiting factors.
Factors driving the occurrence of assimilation among others:
- Tolerance level of a person or group against another group
- Balance economic opportunity among individuals or groups
- Respect for the presence of foreigners and their culture
- Open attitude held by the ruling class in society
- Has equation historical and cultural elements of the development
- Intermarriage between different groups
- The arrival of an external enemy who viewed interfere with survival.
Factors that inhibit the occurrence of assimilation:
- Isolation of certain groups in society
- Lack of cultural knowledge possessed by social group
- Feelings of fear toward a cultural force that it faces
- A sense that culture which is owned by the group or other group is superior to the culture that has
- The existence of differences in skin color or because of certain physical characteristics of different backgrounds the nation
- Feelings of clumped or close down a very strong
- A disturbance of the majority against minority
- The emergence of differences in interests and personal conflict or class
4. Acculturation (acculturation).
Acculturation is a phenomenon that arises as a result of the meeting (contact culture) directly and continuously between human groups who have different cultures but does not eliminate the original characteristics or properties of their respective cultures.
The building of the temple in Indonesia for example. At the Prambanan Temple, the building is shaped staircase and reliefs punden-reliefs picked up the story of Ramayana. So it can be concluded that Indonesia got influence from other countries namely India, Thailand and Cambodia. Despite this atmosphere depicted in the reliefs on the remains of Indonesia's natural ambiance of the beautifully lush, so it still reflects the characteristics of Indonesia.
From the above, associative process is a process that is peggabunagn between two objects or sensory responses and is a series of personality and culture.